Queen Victora came to the throne of England in 1837 and and died in 1901 .her reign was the longest in British History.
AN ERA OF PEACE
The Victorian Age was in general an age of peace .There was a few colonia worse but they did not seriously disturb the nationallife .
Victorian reign saw an enormous increase of population which doubled from 16 million in 1841 to morethan 32 milloin in 1901 .
It was an age full of new activities and invents 'A Communication Revolution' came about which involved not only modes of transportation ,eg;- Raiways and steamships but also the press .The telegraph and telephone altered perseptions of time and space, by the mid 1850 the whole country had been unified by a network of railway and telegraph .
There was a revolution in comercial enterprize, due to the great increase of markets. Great uses of mechanicl devices is a result of industria revolution . The new commercial energy was reflected in the greatexhibition whuch was greated as the inaguration of new of prosperity trade and export of goods resulted the growing middle classes especially enjoy great prosperity .
The other side of the picture of commercial expansion was the scolid conditions of new industrial towns , the prevalence of sloums ( proverty , dert ,disease ) and the exploitationof cheap labour often women and children .By side by side there were many enlightened and sensitive men and women who champianed the cause of poor and oppressed and supurred forward the introduction of social legislation on there behalf . Prominent among are Thomas Curle ,John Reskin ,Charles Dickens ,Charles Kingsly and Mr Gaskell etc .Due to their efforts a number of factory act were passed regulating such matters as child labour , working hour , health and safty and minimum wages .
The Victorian era saw the struggle for political right and the slow extension of the franchise by extenting the vote to include the rich middle class. The reform bill of 37 , which morethan doubled the electrate , extended the franchise to include many male members of the industrial working class . The bill of 1884 took in all males over 21 voting by ballet by introduce .The question of reform is theme in many Victorian novels especially 'Midde March' and 'Felix holt' .
The victorian age was in many ways materialistic age .Material wealth produced a hardless of temper and impatiance with ideas and projects that borught no reformer in hard cash , but it was also the age of great social reformer . eg;- Elizabeth Frai (prison reform ) W. Welbe ( Abolishness Slavery ) .
The age saw a change of intell activity .There was a scientific thought following up works of Darwin and his school and an explotion of social and political theory which was represented by the writing of men like John Stuart Mill and Harbert Spencer . Even Carl s Maxx ,his great work of Communist theory ' Das Kapital ' in England .
THE NEW EDUCATION
The education Act made education to a certain extend compulsory and rapidly produced an enormous producing reading pulic there was great demand for books the most popular form was novel .The 19 th century was the great age of novel . 'Oliver twist ' David copper field, Harold Thomas 'A Tale of Two Cities 'etc . 'Wuthering Heights' by Emily bronte ,by George Eliot are some of the great novels .the novels prodused were of a high standard .
The Victorian Age was marked by an extreme difference to convention which appear almost aburd to latter generation , for example -it was thoughtindecorous for a man to smoke in public or for a lady to ride a bicycle . The moral fevour of the Victorians is clearly apparent in there writings especially in the writings of Tennnyson and the novel of Dickens . Writers seemed ancious to be 'Moral ' and this tendency and moral produced public that denounced novels like Jane Eiyre and Wuthering Heights which Pickwick heros.
Many writers protest against the deadening effect of the conventions , eg ;- Carle and Mathew Arnold . Thakerey was never faired of satrising the snotishness of the age . The Pre- Rafaelities replaced morality in Art with Art for Art Sake Thomas Hardy at the closing of the age attempted to penetrate Victorian..