The world of Old Engish Literature is a world of warriers and battles a world where the indivitual is a solitary outsider in a harsh and difficult society .
The world was to change as a result of the most famous single event in English history .The Normon's where originally from Scandinavia .They established a kingdome in the north of France. This was Normandy .They crossed the channel from France ,one the battle of Hastings ,and look over the kingdome of England , which leitimately belonged to the family of the new king , William the coquerer .
The most important result was the establishment of a strong centralised government . The Nomon king effectively checked the barrons and controlled their destructive tendencies . The Normon domination in the social ,political ,and religious fields continued for morethan two centuries . The fudelism introduced by the Normons caused a great change in England .
The Normon brought with them the French language and culture . The two century after the conquest where the period of consolidation as the two language struggled to integrate as a result Bilingualism wide spread . The Anglo-Saxon language was enriched in course of time .It was only after 1204 that the Normon conquerrors themselves bgan to develop a fulled English identity a desire to use the English language subsiquently more and more french words ented the English language .
At this time London established itself as the capital city the characteristics the London dialect show that it's main influence came to the north ; from the university of Cambridge , Oxford . For some years both English and Normon french were spoken side by side . Until the Normon conquest their is hardly any love poetry in English literature .Clearly land was more important than love .The new love theme came from province in the South-East to France . love was analmost religious passion . and the greatest love was unfulfilled .
french enjoyed great presige and social status . Frenc words penetrated into social status . French words tended to spread from London . Many of these words comes down from a higher social and cultural level and had no equalent had in English . By contrast the English and the Scantinavian derived words are more homely and much more part of a daily life .
French and English mearged to what is known as ' Middle English' and the prosses was complete by about the French words are considered more literary in function 1300. It can be noted that the French words used in domestic domains . Many house hold words are of french origin - government ,parliament , Assembly , Chacellor ,Treasurer, noble ,Peer , Prince , Prinsess , Page , Sir , Madom , Religion , Theology , Prayer , Cardinal , Thirty , charity , Mercy , Pitty , Vertue , Arms, Battle , Blue , Brown ,Scarlet , Pearl ,Diamond , Dinner , Supper , Feart , Appetite , Taste , Roast ,Boil , Fry , Chicken , Mutton , Beaf , Curton , Chair , Music , Art , Painting etc . The bulk of French loans shows that centuries of French linguistic domination made a deep impression English culture as well.
Wednesday, September 1, 2010
Wednesday, July 14, 2010
Many of the poem of the period appear to have associated with the pagan past .The most important work and the oldest poem in the English language is Beowulf ,written around the year 750 AD . Nothing it's know it's authorship .Their is no mention of England , and Beowulf himself is king of Geatas . Probably it was brought from their homeland in Denmark and Sweadan in the form of Ballad .They manifestly heathen in origin ,it is the work of a Christian writer .The dialect of the text is West Saxon . Their is so many episodes and diagratins in the story .IT tells about the mighty feats of the hero Beowulf how he fought and he killed the monster Grentel who for twelve yearshad devasted the lands of King Hrothgar of Denmark .Beowulf also slew the mother of grendel .Then he return his native land .He become king of geatas ad after a prosperous rign of forty years slaves a draggon which had ravaged his land , but in the fight he himself recieves a mortal wound .The poem concludes with the funeral cermonies in honour of the customs are vividly pictures .It represents the English ideal of courage and nobility .
After the conversion of Anglo Saxon;s to the Christianity .Their were two notable poets , Caedmon , and Cynewulf Venerable Bede gives an account of Caedmon , who by divine inspiration transformed from a state of tang-tied in effectiveness into that of poetical ecstasy . he was an unschooled man who turned the old English testament narrative into song .Most of his poems are lost .The Genisis , Exodis , Daniel ,and christ and satan are other poems which were mostly biblically in theme .
Caedmon religions poems influenced Cynewulf in the 8th century .Juliana , Elene , Christ and the fate of the 'Apostles ' some of the poem attributed him .Another poem attributed him 'The Dream of the Rood ' undoubtedly the finest of all English poems. It's a real work of artist and poet . In Anglo Saxon poetry ther are no stanzas and their is no ryhm .their is a geat power of expression surer technical and real descriptive powers . Metapharical phrases and compound words are other speciality of old English poem , eg ; - 'Ring Giver' ( king ) , 'BAttle flash ' ( sword) ,'Whale Rode ' ( sea ) .
OLD ENGLISH PROSE
Though ther was some prose writings before the time of Alfred . He is considered as the father of English prose. He translated some Latin books into English. The five important translations are 'The Pastoral Care ' of Pope Gregory, 'The History of the world ' of Orosius , Bede's 'Ecelesiastical History ' , Beothius of 'Consolation of Philosophy ' and the Soleloquies of St. Augustine .He was the guiding spirit behind the compilation of Anglo- Saxon chronicle which was transformed into a national history . It deals with the history of English up to the 9th century .
Aelfric and wulfsten and Wulfsten were two other writers .Aelfric wrote ' Cathelic Homilies ' for the instructions of ordinary peasents . Wulfstan wrote 'Sermo Lupi ad Anglos' which is typical for it's sheer force and vigour
Soon the Norman Conquest took place in 1066 . The normans brought with them a new language and new customs .AS a result Anglo Saxon poetry almost disappeared
Tuesday, July 13, 2010
Queen Victora came to the throne of England in 1837 and and died in 1901 .her reign was the longest in British History.
AN ERA OF PEACE
The Victorian Age was in general an age of peace .There was a few colonia worse but they did not seriously disturb the nationallife .
Victorian reign saw an enormous increase of population which doubled from 16 million in 1841 to morethan 32 milloin in 1901 .
It was an age full of new activities and invents 'A Communication Revolution' came about which involved not only modes of transportation ,eg;- Raiways and steamships but also the press .The telegraph and telephone altered perseptions of time and space, by the mid 1850 the whole country had been unified by a network of railway and telegraph .
There was a revolution in comercial enterprize, due to the great increase of markets. Great uses of mechanicl devices is a result of industria revolution . The new commercial energy was reflected in the greatexhibition whuch was greated as the inaguration of new of prosperity trade and export of goods resulted the growing middle classes especially enjoy great prosperity .
The other side of the picture of commercial expansion was the scolid conditions of new industrial towns , the prevalence of sloums ( proverty , dert ,disease ) and the exploitationof cheap labour often women and children .By side by side there were many enlightened and sensitive men and women who champianed the cause of poor and oppressed and supurred forward the introduction of social legislation on there behalf . Prominent among are Thomas Curle ,John Reskin ,Charles Dickens ,Charles Kingsly and Mr Gaskell etc .Due to their efforts a number of factory act were passed regulating such matters as child labour , working hour , health and safty and minimum wages .
The Victorian era saw the struggle for political right and the slow extension of the franchise by extenting the vote to include the rich middle class. The reform bill of 37 , which morethan doubled the electrate , extended the franchise to include many male members of the industrial working class . The bill of 1884 took in all males over 21 voting by ballet by introduce .The question of reform is theme in many Victorian novels especially 'Midde March' and 'Felix holt' .
The victorian age was in many ways materialistic age .Material wealth produced a hardless of temper and impatiance with ideas and projects that borught no reformer in hard cash , but it was also the age of great social reformer . eg;- Elizabeth Frai (prison reform ) W. Welbe ( Abolishness Slavery ) .
The age saw a change of intell activity .There was a scientific thought following up works of Darwin and his school and an explotion of social and political theory which was represented by the writing of men like John Stuart Mill and Harbert Spencer . Even Carl s Maxx ,his great work of Communist theory ' Das Kapital ' in England .
THE NEW EDUCATION
The education Act made education to a certain extend compulsory and rapidly produced an enormous producing reading pulic there was great demand for books the most popular form was novel .The 19 th century was the great age of novel . 'Oliver twist ' David copper field, Harold Thomas 'A Tale of Two Cities 'etc . 'Wuthering Heights' by Emily bronte ,by George Eliot are some of the great novels .the novels prodused were of a high standard .
The Victorian Age was marked by an extreme difference to convention which appear almost aburd to latter generation , for example -it was thoughtindecorous for a man to smoke in public or for a lady to ride a bicycle . The moral fevour of the Victorians is clearly apparent in there writings especially in the writings of Tennnyson and the novel of Dickens . Writers seemed ancious to be 'Moral ' and this tendency and moral produced public that denounced novels like Jane Eiyre and Wuthering Heights which Pickwick heros.
Many writers protest against the deadening effect of the conventions , eg ;- Carle and Mathew Arnold . Thakerey was never faired of satrising the snotishness of the age . The Pre- Rafaelities replaced morality in Art with Art for Art Sake Thomas Hardy at the closing of the age attempted to penetrate Victorian..